Herbicide Tests, Usage, and Storage Outside of Vietnam

Agent Orange and other herbicides used during the Vietnam War were tested or stored elsewhere, including some military bases in the United States.

Agent Orange Johnston Island

Thousands of barrels of Agent Orange are stored on Johnston Island, an atoll in the South Pacific, for six years until the last barrel is destroyed on a Dutch incineration ship in 1977.

The Department of Defense has released a list of dates and locations of herbicide tests and storage. They include military bases and locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and other places outside of the U.S. (Note: We do not contend that the DoD’s list is definitive or includes every location or installation where Agent Orange was stored, used or tested. For example, Fort McClellan (Ala.) and Okinawa are two locations where Agent Orange was stored or tested, according to many sources, despite not being on the DoD’s list. We expect there are many others similarly in dispute).

The VA has acknowledged a presumptive service connection for exposure to Agent Orange for those serving in-country in Vietnam.

Take our rapid assessment for Agent Orange and Vietnam

For veterans who believe they have exposure to Agent Orange at sites on the chart below, the veteran must make the service connection when submitting the claim to the VA. The VA decides these claims on a case-by-case basis, without a presumption.

Below is the list of sites, locations, bases and installations where herbicide tests were performed, or where storage of herbicide agents occurred outside of Vietnam.

They are listed in alphabetical order by state, then locations outside of the U.S.. Included are years involved, the type of herbicidal agent, the description of the project, and whether or not the Department of Defense was involved:

Location Dates Agents Project Description DoD involvment
Fort Chaffee, Ark. May 16-18, 1967; July 22-23, 1967; August 23-24, 1967 Basic, in-house improved dessicants and Agent Orange, Agent Blue During the period of December 1966 through October 1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick’s Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and the University of Hawaii. Yes
Pinal Mountains near Globe, Ariz. 1965, 1966, 1968, and 1969 2,4-D isooctyl-ester, 2,4,5-t isooctyl-ester, silvex, propyleneglycolbutylether ester, 2,4,5-T butyl ester, 2,4,5-T 2-e-h e In 1965, the U.S. Forest Service began a land improvement program in the Pinal Mountains. The program called for spraying an area of chaparral with herbicides to accomplish the objectives of multiple land use. No
Brawley, Calif. 1950-51 2,4-D The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Here, irrigation water studies were done with the agent. H.F. Arle, assistant physiologist at the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering, USDA, worked here. Undetermined
Orlando, Fla., at Army Grove Air Force’s Tactical Center March 14, 1944, April 12, 1944 Ammonium thiocynate, zinc chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium arsenate, sodium fluoride. The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Yes
Marathon, Fla. March 21-23, 1944 Zinc chloride, ammonium sulphamate, ammonium thiocynate. The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Spraying was done here. Yes
Near Lake George, Fla. Spring 1944 Zinc chloride The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Spraying here. Yes
Orlando, Fla., and Cocoa, Fla. 1944 Ammonium thiocyanate and zinc chloride Tests were conducted in 1944 by the Army in Orlando and Cocoa areas of Florida to determine the value of ammonium thiocyanate and chloride as marking and defoliation agents.. They were conducted initially at ground level and later from aircraft. Yes
Bushnell Army Air Field, Fla. February 1945 LN *phenoxy Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick, Md. Here, it was aerial spray experiments on potted plants. Yes
Bushnell Army Air Field, Fla. February-April 1945 2,4-D and its ammonium salt Trials, performed by Chemical Warfare Service personnel from Camp Detrick, Md., tested the practicability of severely injuring or destroying crop plants sprayed from smoke tanks mounted on tactical aircraft. Yes
Avon Air Force Base, Fla. February-April 1951 butyl 2,4 D Trials were conducted at Avon Air Force Base by U.S. Army Chemical Corps with personnel of the Air Force and Navy to determine the practical effectiveness of spraying pure anticrop agents from at low volume from aircraft. C-47 and Navy XBT2D-1 aircraft with various nozzles were used. Yes
Englin Air Force Base, Fla. November-December 1952 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T: 143 and 974, respectively Two trials. Chemical Corps: Concerned with basic fundamental work, using 2,4-D, Air Force: Concerned with evaluating prototype large capacity spray system for aircraft installation using 2,4,5-T, primarily. Used 3 atomizing nozzles: Bete Fog Nozzles, Whirljet Spray Nozzles, and Fogjet 1.5F50. Yes
Avon Park Air Force Base, Fla. Spring 1954 butyl 2,4-D, butyl 2,4,5-T, Isopropyl 2,4-D Series of tests were conducted to study the behavior of chemical anticrop aerial sprays when released from high-speed jet aircraft. The Navy F3D jet fighter was used with Aero 14A Airborne Spray Tanks to disperse the anticrop agents. Yes
Jacksonville, Fla. July 18-21, 1962 Agent Purple, Fuel Oil, Mix The HIDAL was used successfully on an H-34 helicopter to spray herbicidal materials. Therefore, it had not been calibrated previously. Spray tests were performed to do so. This was done under order by OSD/ARPA. Yes
Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., C-52A test area 1962-70 Agent Orange (1962-68), Agent Purple (1962-68), Agent White (1967-70), Agent Blue (1968-70) Capt. John Hunter discussed vegetation changes and ecological studies of the two-square mile test area which had been sprayed with herbicides over the period 1962-70. Yes
Apalachicola National Forest near Sophoppy, Fla. May 3-8, 1967 Basic desiccants and Agent Orange, Agent Blue During the period of December 1966 through October 1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick’s Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and the University of Hawaii. Yes
Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. June 11, 1968-Sept. 12, 1968 Agent Orange, Bifluid #1, Bifluid#2, Stull Bifluid A spread factor study was performed by the Army to correlate the spherical drop sizes of Agent Orange and Stull Bifluid defoliants. It involved development of new techniques to determine spread factors over an extended range of drop sizes. A spinning cup drop generator was used. Yes
Two areas in Florida and Georgia, one in Tennessee 1968 Bromacil, Tandex, monuron, diuron, and fenuron In 1968, emphasis was given to soil-applied herbicides for grass control. Applications were made by a jeep-mounted sprayer on small plots or by helicopter on larger plots. Undetermined
Georgia and Tennessee 1964 Diquat and Tordon 101, various Helicopter spray tests were conducted on transmission line rights-of-way by the Georgia Power Company and Tennessee Valley Authority in collaboration with Fort Detrick to evaluate effectiveness of several commercially available herbicides. Yes
Fort Gordon, Ga. July 15-17, 1967 In-house desiccants mixtures and formulations, Agent Orange and Agent Blue During the period of December 1966 through October 1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick’s Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and the University of Hawaii. Yes
Kauai Branch Station near Kapaa, Kawai, Hawaii June 1967, October 1967, December 1967, February 1968 Agent Blue,diquat,paraquat, Agent Orange, PCP, Picloram, White, HCA, 2,4,5T, Endothall. During the period of December 1966 through October 1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick’s Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and the University of Hawaii. Yes
State Forest area, 3500-ft. elevation on slope of Mauna Loa, near Hilo, Hawaii December 2, 1966, December 4, 1966, January 12, 1967 Agent Orange, M-3140, TORDON ester, 2,4-D ester, 2,4,5-T ester. The purpose of this project was to evaluate iso-octyl ester of picloram (TORDON) in mixtures with Agent Orange, as a candidate defoliant agent, using Agent Orange as standard. There were personnel from Fort Detrick there. Undetermined
Hilo, Hawaii December 1966 Agent Orange Field tests of defoliants were designed to evaluate such variables as rates, volume of application, season, and vegetation. Data from aerial application tests at several CONUS and OCONUS locations are provided in tables. There were Fort Detrick personnel there. Yes
Kauai, Hawaii 1967 Agent Orange Field tests of defoliants were designed to evaluate such variables as rates, volume of application, season, and vegetation. Data from aerial application tests at several CONUS and OCONUS locations are provided in tables. Yes
Vigo Plant, Chemical Warfare Service, Terre Haute, Ind. May-September 1945 LN phenoxy Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick, Md. Here, it was aerial trials spraying field grown plants. Yes
Jefferson Proving Grounds, Madison, Ind. Summer 1945 LN phenoxy Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick, Md. Here, it was dropping trials. Yes
Hays, Kan., and Langdon, N.D. 1960 Stem rust of wheat Two studies on the stem rust of wheat were conducted during 1960 to obtain data on the establishment, development, and destructiveness of artificially induced stem rust epiphytotics. Undetermined
Fort Knox, Ky. 1945 Various In 1945, a special project known as Sphinx was conducted jointly by Chemical Warfare Service and the ARML to investigate the use of chemical agents for increasing the flammability of vegetation prior to flame attack. Yes
Area B, Camp Detrick, Md. Spring-Summer 1953 3:1 mixture 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T Personnel at Camp Detrick tested the feasibility of using an experimental spray tower for applying a mixture of chemical anticrop agents to broad-leaf crops. Yes
Fort Ritchie, Md. 1963 Tordon, 2,4-D, Orange, diquat, endothal, and combinations of each with Tordon. Various studies were done to explore the effectiveness of different herbicides. They were all field trials. These studies were done by personnel from the US Army Biological Laboratories. Yes
Fort Meade, Md. 1963 Cacodylic acid, Dowco 173, butyediol RVarious studies were done to explore the effectiveness of different herbicides. They were all field trials. These studies were done by personnel from the U.S. Army Biological Laboratories. Yes
Camp Detrick, Md., Fields A, B, and C 1946-47 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-T triethanolamine, tributylphosphate, ethyl 2,4-D, butyl 2,4,5-Ttriet 2,4-D. The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Yes
Camp Detrick, Md., Fields C, D, and E 1948 2,4,5-T, isopropyl phenol carbamate, LN-2426, 2,4-D. The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Yes.
Camp Detrick, Md., Fields C, D, and E 1949 Triethelyne. 2,4,5-T, carbamates The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Yes
Camp Detrick, Md., Fields A, B, D, and E 1950 2464, butyl 2,4-D, 974, butyl 2,4,5-T, q:q 143 and 974. The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Yes
Camp Detrick, Md., Field F 1950-51 2464, carbamate, butyl 2,4-D, 143 and 974, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Agent Orange The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Yes
Fort Detrick, Md., and Fort Ritchie, Md. 1956-57 Various, 577 compounds In 1956 And 1957, defoliation and desiccation were carried out at Fort Detrick and Fort Ritchie by the Chemical Corps and Biological Warfare Research. These were bench tests. Yes
Poole’s Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. July 14, 1969 Agent Orange, Agent Orange plus foam, Agent Orange plus foam Orange, Foam Personnel from Naval Applied Science Laboratory in conjunction with personnel from Limited War Laboratory conducted a defoliation test along the shoreline. Yes
Fort Detrick, Md. August 1961-June 1963 1410 compounds Compounds were spray-tested in the greenhouse to evaluate them as effective defoliants, desiccants, and herbicides. Yes
Near Wayside, Miss., and Wilcox Road, Greenville, Miss. September 19, 1967 Picloram, bromacil, pyriclor, and terbacil, Agent Orange, cacodylic acid The Dow Chemical Company was awarded a Department of Defense research contract. The objective was to prepare as pellets mixtures of various herbicides and to test them on varying vegetation situations for the control of a range of plant species. Undetermined
Fulcher Ranch, Greenville, Miss. April 15, 1968 Picloram and bromicil The Dow Chemical Company was awarded a Department of Defense research contract. The objective was to prepare as pellets mixtures of various herbicides and to test them on varying vegetation situations for the control of a range of plant species. Undetermined
Gulfport, Miss. 1968-70 Agent Orange While discussing the mandatory disposal of Agent Orange, it was mentioned that 15,161 drums were being stored at Gulfport, Miss. Yes
Galatin Valley near Bozeman, Mont. July 3, 1953, July 6, 1953, July 14, 1953 4-fluorophenoxy-acetic acid and 2 of its esters, 3:1 butyl 2,4-D and butyl 2,4,5-T A preliminary series of field evaluations of chemical agents for attacking wheat using a miniature spraying system mounted on light aircraft were performed by USDA. No
Fort Drum, N.Y. 1959 Agent Orange The Commanding General, 1st U.S. Army, requested that Fort Detrick assist with defoliation efforts at Fort Drum. Thirteen drums were sprayed there on four square miles from a helicopter spray device. Yes
Stone Valley Experimental Forest in Huntington County, and near State College in Centre County, Pa. March 1969-October 1970 Bromacil, diuron, tandex, fenuron, picloram Soil-applied herbicides were studied by the University of Pennsylvania with Fort Detrick for 18 months for their effectiveness, rapidity of action, and duration of response in native stands of central Pennsylvania grasses, broadleaf weeds and woody plants. These herbicides were spread or sprayed. Undetermined
Kingston, R.I. July 26, 1949; 1950-51 Trieth.2,4,5-T, butyl 2,4,5-T,974 The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Experiments were carried out under supervision of T.E. Odland Rhode Island State College. Yes
Beaumont, Texas June 1944 LN phenoxy Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick, Md. Here, they were testing on rice crops. No
Marinette, Wis., and Weslaco, Texas May 1967-January 1969 Arsenic compounds, Agent Orange, cacodylic acid, sodium cacodylate. 71 new arsenic compounds were tested in primary screening against 6 plant species in greenhouse tests. Then, five of the most active compounds were tested in field trials against Red Maple and compared to formulations of cacodylic acid and a 50:50 blend of Agent Orange and sodium cacodylate. The Ansul Co. for the Department of Defense. Yes
Beaumont, Texas 1950-51 2,4-D The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Here, irrigation water studies were done with the agent. Undetermined
Granite Peak, Utah Summer 1945 LN phenoxy Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick, Md. Here, it was dropping trials. Yes
Prosser, Wash. 1950-51 2,4-D The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Here, irrigation water studies were done with the agent. Undetermined
Southeastern part of Kompong Cham Province, and Dar and Prek Clong plantations, Cambodia JUNE 1969 Agent Orange the US government received notice of charge by Cambodian government that major defoliation damage to the Cambodian rubber plantation near the RVN border had occurred as a result of U.S. defoliation activity. This was confirmed by a team of experts. Yes
Base Gagetown near Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada June 20-24, 1967 Basic desiccants and Agent Orange, Agent Blue, various During the period of December 1966 through October 1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick’s Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and the University of Hawaii. Yes
Kumbla, South India 1945-46 LN compounds phenoxy The main objective of the experiments was to determine the feasibility of accomplishing severe injury or destruction of tropical food crops by the application of growth-inhibiting (LN) compounds in static trials. Field plantings were treated with various agents at different rates in different forms. Yes
Korea, third Brigade, 2nd Division area July 23-24, 1968 Hyvar XWS, tandex, Urox B, Urox Oil concentrate (liquids) bromacil, tandex, Urox 22 (solids). Chemicals were sent from the Plant Sciences Lab, Fort Detrick, Md., to the Republic of Korea for the purpose of testing their effectiveness in the control of vegetation. Yes
Korea,2nd and 4th Brigades, 2nd Division area August 1968 Hyvar XWS, tandex, Urox B, Urox Oil concentrate (liquids) bromacil, tandex, Urox 22 (solids). Chemicals were sent from the Plant Sciences Lab, Fort Detrick, Md., to the Republic of Korea for the purpose of testing their effectiveness in the control of vegetation. Yes
Korea, third Brigade, 2nd Division area October 3, 1968 Hyvar XWS, tandex, Urox B, Urox Oil concentrate (liquids) bromacil, tandex, Urox 22 (solids). Chemicals were sent from the Plant Sciences Lab, Fort Detrick, Md., to the Republic of Korea for the purpose of testing their effectiveness in the control of vegetation. Yes
Laos December 1965-1967 Agent Orange Herbicide operations were begun in Laos, with sorties being flown from Tan Son Nhut and Da Nang. The purpose was the exposure of foot trails, dirt roads and other locations that crossed into South Vietnam This network leads from North Vietnam, through the eastern panhandle, to Cambodian border. Yes
Las Marias, Puerto Rico February-December 1967 Various, including Agent Orange During the period of December 1966 through October 1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick’s Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and the University of Hawaii. Yes
Las Mesas, Cerros, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico May 24, 1968, May 26-27, 1968 Picloram, bromacil, pyriclor. The Dow Chemical Company was awarded a Department of Defense research contract. The objective was to prepare as pellets mixtures of various herbicides and to test them on varying vegetation situations for the control of a range of plant species. Undetermined
Las Mesas and La Jagua experimental areas at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico February-June 1956 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, pentachlorophenol ammate, weedazol, endothal Harvestaid, Butyne -1,4-diol. Nine chemicals were evaluated on 16 genera tropical woody plants. The chemicals were sprayed to duplicat small branches, using a microsprayer. Yes
Guanica and Joyuda, Puerto Rico June-September 1956 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, potassium cyanate, amiendo, F-2, 6-Ca-4, Y-F Tree and Brush Killer, ACP M-118, Shed-A-Leaf. Nine chemicals were evaluated on 16 genera tropical woody plants. The chemicals were sprayed to duplicat small branches, using a microsprayer. Yes
Las Mesas and La Jagua, Mayaguez, Joyuda at Cabo Rojo, and Guanica Insular Forest at Guanica, Puerto Rico September-December 1956 6-Ca-4, Loijn Oil, 2,4,5-T, B-1613, B-1638, Ammate, V-C1-186, endothal, Shed-A-Leaf, M-118, Y-F, esteron, 2,4-D, F3, F4, F5, F6 Sixteen compounds with defoliating properties were evaluated using 28 different tropical woody plants, each representing a separate genus. The chemicals were applies to duplicate small branches with a microsprayer and to single larger branches or whote trees with a two-gallon knapsack sprayer. Yes
Las Mesas and La Jagua, Mayaguez, Guanica Beach, Puerto Rico January-March 1957 V-C 3-105, V-C 1-21, V-C 1-443, F-7, RBP, Phillips 713, V-C 3-173 Seven compounds were evaluated on 29 different woody plants to determine their effectiveness as defoliants, desiccants, and killing agents. The compounds were applied with a microsprayer to the upper leaf surfaces of duplicate small branches. Yes
Las Mesas and La Jagua, Mayaguez, Guanica Beach, Puerto Rico April-June 1957 B-1676, B-1638, NP 1098, SD 1369, Ammate, Shed-A-Leaf Seven compounds were sprayed on 25 different plants in order to evaluate their effectiveness as defoliants, desiccants, and killing agents. The compounds were applied with a microsprayer to the upper and lower leaf surfaces of duplicate small branches. Yes
Las Mesas and La Jagua, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico July-December 1957 MgCIO3, Golden Harvest Defoliant, Dow-M562, F-8, F-9, F-10, F-11, F-12 Eight different spray formulations were applied to 16 different tropical trees and shrubs in order to evaluate their effectiveness as defoliants, desiccants, and killing agents. Yes
Near Rio Grande, on the northeast coast of Puerto Rico August 23, 1967; October 18, 1967; December 21-26, 1967 Picloram, bromacil, pyriclor, and terbacil. The Dow Chemical Company was awarded a Department of Defense research contract. The objective was to prepare as pellets mixtures of various herbicides and to test them on varying vegetation situations for the control of a range of plant species. Undetermined
Loquillo, Puerto Rico April 1966, October 1966 Agent Orange Field tests of defoliants were designed to evaluate such variables as rates, volume of application, season, and vegetation. Data from aerial application tests at several CONUS and OCONUS locations are provided in tables. Yes
At Sea Summer 1977 Agent Orange The U.S. Air Force incinerated 2.22 million gallons of Agent Orange at sea in an operation entitled PACER HO. Extensive industrial hygiene sampling efforts supporting the transfer operations at Gulfport, Miss., and the Johnston Island atoll in the South Pacific indicated all exposures were inconsequential (2-3 orders of magnitude below the TLVs for 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T). Yes, Gulfport, Miss.; No, Johnson Island
Thailand 1964-65 Agent Purple, Agent Orange, others Sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA); ARPA Order 423, Between the mentioned dates, there was a large-scale test program to determine effectiveness of mentioned agents in defoliation of upland forest or jungle vegetation representative of Southeast Asia. Yes
Thailand 1964-65 Agent Orange, Agent Blue Field tests of defoliants were designed to evaluate such variables as rates, volume of application, season, and vegetation. Data from aerial application tests at several CONUS and OCONUS locations are provided in tables. Yes
Replacement raining Center of the Royal Thai Army near Pranburi, Thailand 1964-65 Agent Orange, Agent Purple An extensive series of tests were conducted by Fort Detrick, Md., during 1964 and 1965 in collaboration with the Military Research and Development Center of Thailand. The objective was to perform onsite evaluation of phytotoxic chemicals on vegetation in Southeast Asia. Yes

Sources: Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs

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